Dr. Kalachand Sain

Dr. Kalachand Sain

Director

91-135-2525101 (O)
 

dir.off(AT)wihg.res.in

 

Kalachand Sain received his M.Sc.(Tech) in Applied Geophysics from Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad in 1988 and Ph.D. in Controlled Source Seismology from OsmaniaUniversity (CSIR-NGRI), Hyderabad. He visited Cambridge University (UK) and RiceUniversity (USA) as a post-doctoral fellow, and USGS in Menlo Park (USA) as a visiting Scientist.He is working on seismic attenuation & other attributes, meta-attribute, travel-time tomography, AVO modeling, 1-D & 2-D full-waveform inversion, impedance inversion, prestack depth migration,rockphysics modeling. His main interests include (i) delineation andassessment of gas-hydrates, (ii) imaging sub-volcanic sediments, and (iii) understanding geotectonicsand earthquake processes of Indian provinces including the Himalaya from geophysical data. He has published 125 research papers in peer-reviewscientific journals, 98 non-SCI articles/reports, and guided for 5 doctoral theses and 65M.Sc./M.Sc.(Tech) dissertations. He hasbeen recognized by a number of awards/fellowships/honours; notable among them are (i) Fellow of National Academy of Sciences, India (2011);Andhra Pradesh Academy of Sciences (2010); Telangana State Academy of Sciences (2016), (ii) Distinguished Alumnus Award (2017) of IIT(ISM); AP Scientist Award (2011); Young Scientist Award (1998) of CSIR; National Mineral Award(2005) by Ministry of Mines; Best Paper Award (2012) published in Gondwana Research (IF=8.23); Best Poster Award (2007) by Int. Con. on Oil & Gas by PETROTECH; Swarnajayanti Project Award (2001) by DST, (iii) Raman Fellowship (2003) by CSIR; BOYSCAST Fellowship (1999) by DST, (iv) Krishnan Gold Medal (1996);Anni Talwani Memorial Prize (2014) & Decennial Award (2016) by IGU, (v) Prem Bahadur Memorial Lecture (2009) by IGC, etc. He is a member of numerous Committees like the Bureau Member of International Lithosphere Program under IUGG (2007-2015); Hon. Secretary of Indian Geophysical Union (2014 onward); Indian National Gas Hydrates Program (2000 onward); Alternate delegate of Asia pacific region to AAPG House of Delegates (2015-2017), and Editorial Boards of Int. Journals such as 'Jour. of Geological Soc. of India& First Track Articles', 'Open Access Jour. of Geophys. & Remote Sensing', and Open Access Int. Jour. of Geosci. Research'. He has served as a Guest Editor in 3 special issues on gas-hydrates in 'Marine & Petroleum Geology' (2011, 2014, 2018) by Elsevier and as a member of Editorial Board for the second edition of 'Encyclopedia for Solid Earth Geophysics' by Springer.

 

Personal Page: https://kalachandsain.wixsite.com/saink

 
 
 
 

 

(i) Active Member of AAPG (2012 onward);

(ii) Active Member of SEG (2015 onward);

(iii) Member of Asia Oceania Geosci. Soc. (2003 onward);

(iv) Member of AGU (2001-2004; 2013 onward);

(v) Board of Studies for M.Sc.(Tech) in App. Geophys. at IIT(ISM) (2006-2008);

(vi) Member for preparing Vision Document of DOD (2000) for 15 years;

(vii) Member for preparing 10th, 11th & 12th FYP of CSIR for Hydrocarbons & Gas-hydrates;

(viii) Indian Geophys. Union (1996 onward),

(ix) Indian Sci. Cong. Ass. (1997 onward),

(x) Indian Geological Congress (2009 onward);

(xi) Technical Committee of National Gas Hydrates Program (2000 onward);

(xii) Research Advisory Committee of DOD (2002-2004).

Post-doctoral  1997, (Marine Seismics), Cambridge University, UK
Post-doctoral  1999, (Traveltime Tomography), Rice University, USA
Post-doctoral  2003, (Waveform Tomography), Rice University, USA

(i) INR 4886 Lakhs from MoES for investigating gas-hydrates (2007 - 2017) (PL of the Project);

(ii) INR 60 Lakhs from OIDB for quantification on gas-hydrates (2007 - 2012) (PL of the Project);

(iii) INR 36 Lakhs under Swarnajayanti Project from DST for delineation & assessment of gas-hydrates (2002 - 2006) (PL of the Project);

(iv) INR 25 Lakhs by MoES for understanding petroleum system of gas hydrates in KG basin (2014-2017) (PL of the Project);

(v) Procured INR 8500 Lakhs worth ocean bottom & multi-channel seismic data (that were acquired by ONGC in Kerala-Konkan offshore in 2012 using modern acquisition system) for the investigation of sub-volcanic sediments (PL of the Project);

(vi) PL of MLP Project on "Gas Hydrates & Conventional Hydrocarbons";

(vii) Nodal Officer of GENIAS, and PL of SHORE & GEOSCAPE - important projects under the 12th Five Year Scientific Program of CSIR.

List of Publications:

 

(a) SCI Papers

 

1)      Bappa Mukherjee & K. Sain, 2019. Reservoir parameter prediction using artificial intelligence (AI): A case study of Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin (NGHP-02 Expedition), Jour. of Earth System Science., accepted.

2)      Rowtu Ramu & K. Sain, 2019. Characterization of gas hydrates reservoirs in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, accepted.

3)      Laxmi Pandey, K. Sain & Anju K. Joshi, 2019. Estimation of gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern continental margin of India, NGHP-02 Expedition, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.12.009, in press.

4)      Anju K. Joshi, K. Sain & Laxmi Pandey, 2019. Gas hydrate saturation and reservoir characterization at sites NGHP-02-17-C and NGHP-02-19-C, Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern margin of India, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.06.023, in press.

5)      Jitender Kumar, K. Sain, & KP Arun, 2018, Seismic attributes for characterizing gas hydrates: A study from the Mahanadi offshore, India, Mar. Geophys. Res., https://doi.org/10.1007/s11001-018-9357-4, in press.

6)      P. C. Kumar, K. Sain & Animesh Mandal, 2019. Delineation of a buried volcanic system in Kora prospect off New Zealand using artificial neural networks and its implications, Jour. of App. Geophys., 161, 56-75.

7)      P. C. Kumar, K.O. Omosanya & K. Sain, 2019. Sill cube: a novel automated approach for the interpretation of magmatic sill complexes on seismic reflection data, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol Geol. 100, 60-84.

8)      D. Ghosal, S.S. Ganguli, R.N. Singh & K. Sain, 2018. Simulating the gas hydrate behavior at equilibrium dissociation: A study from Mahanadi basin, offshore eastern India, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol Geol., 98, 802-814.

9)      P. C. Kumar & K. Sain, 2018. Attribute amalgamation-aiding interpretation of faults from seismic data: An example from Waitara 3D prospect, offshore Taranaki basin, New Zealand, Jour. of App. Geophys., 159, 52-68.

10)    P.S.R. Prasad, B. Sai Kiran &K. Sain, 2018, Effectiveness of the amino acids for carbon storage and utilization applications, Current Science, 114, 1163-1165.

11)    Arun, KP, K. Sain & Jitender Kumar, 2017, Estimation of elastic parameters from constrained AVO inversion and saturation of gas hydrates in the Mahanadi offshore basin, India, Jour. of Natural Gas Sci. & Engg., 50, 90-100.

12)    D. Sarkar & K. Sain, 2017. Deep seismic sounding experiments in the Koyna RTS region - an overview of the results, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 90, 663-669.

13)    V. Jyothi, K. Sain, V. Pandey & A.K. Bhaumik, 2017. Seismic attenuation for characterization of gas hydrate reservoir in KG basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 90, 261-266.

14)    A. K. Bhaumik, Shiv Kumar, S. Ray, G. K. Vishwakarma, A.K. Gupta, P. Kumar & K. Sain, 2017. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera: implication for microhabitat preferences and interspecies correlation, Jour. of Earth System Sci., 126:72, 1-15.

15)    N. Satyavani, K. Sain, & N. Damodara, 2017. Seismic vis-a-vis sonic attenuation in gas hydrate bearing sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern margin of India, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 209, 1195-1203.

16)    K. Sain, 2017. A possible future energy resource, Editorial, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 89, 359-362

17)    N. Damodara, V. Vijaya Rao, K. Sain, ASSRS Prasad & ASN Murthy, 2017. Implications of East Gondwana breakup on the architecture of West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 208, 1490-1507.

18)    S. Jana, M. Ojha, K. Sain & Shalivahan, 2017. An approach to estimate gas hydrate saturation from 3-D heterogeneous resistivity model: a study from Krishna-Godavari Basin, eastern Indian offshore, Jour. Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 79, 99-107.

19)    D. Singh, P. C. Kumar & K. Sain, 2016. Interpretation of gas chimney from seismic data using artificial neural network: A study from the Maari 3D prospect of Taranaki basin, New Zealand, Jour. of Natural Gas Sci. & Engg., 36, 339-357.

20)    M. Ojha, M.K. Sen & K. Sain, 2016. Imaging of gas hydrate bearing sediments by full waveform inversion of multichannel seismic data from KG basin, India, Jour. of Seis. Expl., 25, 359-373.

21)    J. Qian, X.J. Wang, D.D. Dong, S.G. Wu, K. Sain & Y.M. Ye, 2016. Quantitative assessment of free gas beneath gas hydrate stability zone from prestack seismic data and rock physics: a case of hole NGHP01-10A, Krishna-Godavari basin, India, Chinese Jour. of Geophys., 59(7), 2553-2563.

22)    R. Chatterjee, D.K. Singha, M. Ojha, M.K. Sen & K. Sain, 2016. Porosity estimation from pre-stack seismic data in gas hydrate-bearing sediments, Krishna-Godavari basin, India, Jour. of Natural Gas Sci. & Engg., 33, 562-572.

23)    N. Satyavani, K. Sain, & H.K. Gupta, 2016. Gas hydrate saturation in Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin from ocean bottom seismic data, Jour. of Natural Gas Sci.& Engg., 33, 908-917.

24)    S.K. Sinha, P. Dewangan & K. Sain, 2016. Acoustic reflections in the water column of KG offshore basin, Bay of Bengal, Jour. of Acoustical Soc. of America, 139(5), 2424-2431.

25)    A.S.N. Murty, K. Sain, V. Sridhar, ASSSRS Prasad & S. Raju, 2016. Delineation of Trap and subtrappean Mesozoic sediments in Saurashtra peninsula, Current Science, 110, 1844-1851.

26)    R. Kumar, B. Das, R. Chatterjee & K. Sain, 2016. A methodology of porosity estimation from inversion of post-stack seismic data, Jour. of Natural Gas Sci. & Engg., 28, 356-364.

27)    S. Sinha, P. Dewangan & K. Sain, 2016. Estimation of sea surface temperature using marine seismic data, Pure & App. Geophys, 173, 1305-1316.

28)    K. Chandrakala, O.P. Pandey, ASSSRS Prasad & K. Sain, 2015. Seismic imaging across the Eastern Ghats Belt-Cuddapah basin collisional zone, southern Indian shield and possible geodynamic implications, Precambrian Research, 271, 56-64.

29)    S. Jana, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2015. Gas hydrate saturation from heterogeneous model constructed from well log in KG basin, eastern Indian offshore, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 203, 246-256.

30)    N. Satyavani, G. Alekhya & K. Sain, 2015. Free gas / gas hydrate inference in Krishna-Godavari basin using seismic and well log data, Jour. of Natural Gas Sci. & Engg., 25, 317-324.

31)    V. Vijaya Rao, N. Damodara, K. Sain, M.K. Sen, ASN Murthy & D. Sarkar, 2015. Upper crust of the Archean Dharwar craton in southern India using seismic refraction tomography and its geotectonic implications, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 200, 652-663.

32)    N. Satyavani & K. Sain, 2015. Seismic insights of a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 33, 191-201.

33)    Ch. Eswari, B. Raju, V. D. Chari, PSR Prasad & K. Sain, 2014. Laboratory Study of methane hydrate formation kinetics and structural stability in sediments, Jour. Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 58, 199-205.

34)    T. S. Collett, R. Boswell, J.R. Cochran, P. Kumar, M. Lall, A. Mazumdar, M.V. Ramana, T. Ramprasad, M. Riedel, K. Sain, A.V. Sathe, K. Vishwanath & the NGHP Expedition 01 Scientific Party, 2014. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the Indian offshore: Results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01, Jour. Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 58, 3-28.

35)    P. Kumar, T. S. Collett, R. Boswell, J.R. Cochran, M. Lall, A. Mazumdar, M.V. Ramana, T. Ramprasad, M. Riedel, K. Sain, A.V. Sathe, K. Vishwanath, U.S. Yadav & the NGHP Expedition 01 Scientific Party, 2014. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the Indian offshore: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin, Jour. Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 58, 29-98.

36)    J. Wang, K. Sain, X. Wang, N. Satyavani & S. Guo, 2014. Characteristics of bottom-simulating reflectors for hydrate-filled fractured sediments in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of Petrol. Sci. & Engg., 122, 515-523.

37)    U. Shankar, K. Sain & M. Riedel, 2014. Assessment of gas-hydrates stability zone and geothermal modeling of BSR in the Andaman Sea, Journal of Asian Earth Sci., 79, 358-365.

38)    D.K. Singha, R. Chatterjee, M.K. Sen & K. Sain, 2014. Pore pressure prediction in gas hydrate bearing sediments of Krishna-Godavari basin, India, Marine Geology, 357, 1-11.

39)    M. Ojha, & K. Sain, 2014. Velocity-porosity and velocity-density relationship for shallow sediments in Kerala-Konkan basin on western margin of India, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 84, 187-191.

40)    N. Satyavani, M.K. Sen, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2013. Azimuthal anisotropy from OBS observations in Mahanadi offshore, India, Interpretation, 1(2), T187-T198.

41)    M. Ojha, & K. Sain, 2013. Quantification of gas hydrates and free gas in the Andaman offshore from downhole data, Current Science, 105, 512-516.

42)    X. Wang, K. Sain, N. Satyavani, J. Wang, M. Ojha & S. Wu, 2013, Gas hydrates saturation using the geostatistical inversion in fractured reservoir in Krishna-Godavari basin, offshore eastern India, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol Geol., 45, 224-235.

43)    U. Shankar, D.K. Gupta, D. Bhowmick & K. Sain, 2013. Gas hydrate and free-gas saturations using rock physics modeling at site NGHP-01-05 in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of Petrol. Sci. & Engg., 106, 62-70.

44)    P.P. Rao, S. Rajput, B. Ashalatha, U. Shankar, K. Sain, M.S. Naidu, V. Triveni & N.K. Thakur, 2012. Lithospheric structure model of central Indian ocean basin using ocean bottom seismometer data, Jour. of Earth Sci. and Engg., 2, 344-359.

45)    U. Shankar & K. Sain, 2012. Amplitude variation with offset responses for gas hydrate/free gas models: a case study, Current Science, 103, 413-419.

46)    K. Sain & H. K. Gupta, 2012. Gas hydrates in India: Potential and Development, Gondwana Research, 22, 645-657.

47)    K. Sain, M. Ojha, N. Satyavani, G.A. Ramadass, T. Ramprasad, S.K. Das & H.K. Gupta, 2012. Gas hydrates in KG and Mahanadi basins: new data, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 79, 553-556.

48)    A. R. Sridhar, ASSSRS Prasad, K. Sain & D. Sarkar, 2012. Lithospheric structure across the western part of the Narmada-Son Lineament from Wide-angle Seismic data, Current Science, 102, 484-489.

49)    U. Shankar, K. Sain & M. Riedel, 2012. Geothermal modeling for the base of gas hydrate stability zone and saturation of gas hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 79, 199-209.

50)    P.K. Singh & K. Sain, 2012. 2-D Velocity structure in Kerala-Konkan basin using travel time inversion of seismic data, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 79, 53-60.

51)    K. Sain, 2012. Gas hydrates - a probable solution to India's energy crisis, Internat. Jour. of Earth Sci. & Engg, Editorial Note, v.5, No.2, p.1-3.

52)    R. Matsumoto, B.J. Ryu, S.R. Lee, S. Lin, S. Wu, K. Sain, I. Pecher, M. Riedel, 2011. Occurrence and exploration of gas hydrate in the marginal seas and continental margin of the Asia and Oceania region, Jour. Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 28, 1751-1767.

53)    K. Sain, V. Rajesh, N. Satyavani, K.V. Subbarao & C. Subrahmanyam, 2011. Gas hydrate stability thickness map along the Indian continental margin, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 28, 1779-1786.

54)    K. Sain & A.K. Singh, 2011. Seismic quality factors across a bottom simulating reflector in the Makran accretionary prism, Arabian Sea, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 28, 1838-1843.

55)    R. Ghosh, K. Sain & M. Ojha, 2010. Estimating the amount of gas hydrate using effective medium theory: a case study in the Blake Ridge, Sp. issue, Mar. Geophys. Res., 31, 29-37.

56)    K. Sain, R. Ghosh & M. Ojha, 2010. Rock physics modeling for assessing gas hydrate and free gas: a case study in the Cascadia accretionary prism, Mar. Geophys. Res., 31,109-119.

57)    R. Ghosh, K. Sain & M. Ojha, 2010. Effective medium modeling of gas hydrate-filled fractures using the sonic log in the KG basin, offshore eastern India, Jour. of Geophys. Res., 115, B06101, 1-15.

58)    M. Ojha, K. Sain & T.A. Minshull, 2010. Assessment of gas hydrates saturation in the Makran accretionary prism using the offset dependence of seismic amplitudes, Geophysics, 75, 2, C1-C6.

59)    M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2009. Seismic attributes for identifying gas hydrates and free-gas zones: application to the Makran accretionary prism, Episodes, 32, 264-270.

60)    A.R. Sridhar, ASSSRS. Prasad, N. Satyavani and K. Sain, 2009. Sub-Trappean Mesozoic sediments in the Narmada basin based on traveltime and amplitude modeling - a revisit to old seismic data, Current Sciences, 97, 1462-1466.

61)    K. Sain, A.K. Singh, N.K. Thakur & R. K. Khanna, 2009. Seismic quality factor observations for gas hydrate-bearing sediments on western Indian margin, Mar. Geophys. Res., 30, 137-145.

62)    U. Shankar, S. S. Singh & K. Sain, 2009. Signal enhancement and multiple suppression using radon transform - an application to marine multichannel seismic data, Mar. Geophys. Res., 30, 85-93.

63)    K. Sain, 2009. Gas hydrates: a future major potential energy resource of India, Internat. Jour. of Earth Sci. & Engg, 2, 1-11.

64)    N. Satyavani, K. Sain, Malcolm Lall, & B.J.P. Kumar, 2008. Seismic attribute study for gas hydrates in the Andaman offshore, India, Mar. Geophys. Res., 29, 167-175.

65)    R. Ghosh & K. Sain, 2008. Effective medium modeling to assess gas hydrate and free gas evident from the velocity structure in the Makran accretionary prism, Mar. Geophys. Res., 29, 267–274.

66)    A.S.N. Murthy, K. Sain, & B.R. Prasad, 2008. Velocity structure of West-Bengal sedimentary basin, India along Palashi-Kandi profile using travel time inversion of wide-angle seismic data and gravity modeling - An Update, Pure & App. Geophys., 165, 1733-1750.

67)    K. Sain & H.K. Gupta, 2008. Gas hydrates: Indian scenario, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 72, 299-311

68)    U. Shankar, M. Ojha, K. Sain, R.K. Khanna, M. Sudhakar & A. Tyagi, 2008. Seafloor geophysical study in search of gas hydrates/gas related evidences in the deep waters of the western continental margin of India, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 72, 547-555.

69)    M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2008. Appraisal of gas hydrates/free-gas from VP/VS ratio in the Makran accretionary prism, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., 25, 637-644.

70)    P.S.R. Prasad, K. Shiva Prasad, Y. Sowjanya & K. Sain, 2008. Laser micro Raman investigations on gas hydrates, Current Science, 94, 1495-1499.

71)    A.S.N. Murthy, K. Sain, H.C. Tewari & B.R. Prasad, 2008. Crustal velocity in-homogeneities along the Hirapur-Mandla profile in central India and its tectonic implications, Jour. of Asian Earth Sci., 31, 533-545.

72)    R.K. Chadha, D. Srinagesh, A. Manglik & K. Sain, 2007. A Note on “Planet Earth – Focal theme for the 94th session of the Indian Science Congress, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 69, 873-874.

73)    K. Sain, 2007. Gas hydrates - a potential source of energy, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 70, 173-174

74)    U. Shankar & K. Sain, 2007. Specific character of the bottom simulating reflectors near mud diapirs: Western margin of India, Current Science, 93, 997-1002.

75)    V.V. Rao, K. Sain & B.R. Prasad, 2007. Dipping moho in the southern part of the eastern Dharwar craton, India, as revealed by the coincident seismic reflection and refraction Study, Current Science, 93, 330-336.

76)    V.V. Rao, K. Sain & V. G. Krishna, 2007. Modeling and inversion of single-ended refraction data from the shot gathers of multifold deep seismic reflection profiling – an approach for deriving the shallow velocity structure, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 169, 507-514.

77)    M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2007. Seismic velocities and quantification of gas hydrates from AVA modeling in the western continental margin of India, Mar. Geophys. Res., 28,101-107.

78)    L. Behera & K. Sain, 2006, Crustal velocity structure of Indian shield from the deep seismic sounding and receiver function studies, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 68, 989-992.

79)    V.V. Rao, K. Sain, P.R. Reddy & W.D. Mooney, 2006. Crustal structure and tectonics of the northern part of the southern granulite terrain, India, Earth & Planet. Sci. Letts, 251, 90-103.

80)    R. Ghosh, M. Ojha, K. Sain & N.K. Thakur, 2006. Physical parameters of hydrated sediments estimated from marine seismic reflection data: a case study, Current Science, 90, 1421-1430.

81)    S.K. Bhukta, K. Sain & H.C. Tewari, 2006. Crustal structure along the Lawrencepur-Astor profile across the Nanga Parbat, Pure & App. Geophys., 163, 1257-1277, 2006.

82)    L. Behera, K. Sain & P.R. Reddy, 2004. Evidence of underplating from seismic and gravity studies in the Mahanadi delta of eastern India and its tectonic significance, Jour. of Geophys. Res., 109, B12311, 1-25.

83)    R.K. Dash, K. Sain & N.K. Thakur, 2004. Overpressure detection from seismic AVO response: an application to gas hydrates, Current Science, 86, 985-990.

84)    N. Satyavani, N.K. Thakur, U. Shankar, S.I. Reddi, A.R. Sridhar, P.P. Rao, K. Sain & R. Khanna, 2003. Indicators of gas hydrates: role of velocity and amplitude, Current Science, 85, 1360-1363.

85)    P. Vohat, K. Sain & N.K. Thakur, 2003. Heat flow and geothermal gradient from BSR: a case study, Current Science, 85, 1263-1266.

86)    P. Kumar, K. Sain & H.C. Tewari, 2003. A direct method of estimating the depth to a reflector from wide-angle reflection times, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 152, 740-748.

87)    C.A. Zelt, K. Sain, J.V. Naumenko & D.S. Sawyer, 2003. Assessment of crustal velocity models using seismic refraction and reflection tomography, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 153, 609-626.

88)    P.R. Reddy, B.R. Prasad, V.V. Rao, K. Sain, P.P. Rao, P. Khare & M.S. Reddy, 2003. Deep seismic reflection and refraction/wide-angle reflection studies along Kuppam-Palani transect in the southern granulite terrain of India, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 50, 79-106.

89)    K. Sain, C.A. Zelt & P.R. Reddy, 2002. Imaging subvolcanic Mesozoics in the Saurashtra peninsula of India using travel time inversion of wide-angle seismic data, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 150, 820-826.

90)    L. Behera, K. Sain, P.R. Reddy, I.B.P. Rao & V.Y.N. Sharma, 2002. Delineation of shallow structure and Gondwana graben in Mahanadi delta, India using forward modeling of first arrival seismic data, Jour. of Geodynamics, 34, 129-141.

91)    K. Sain, P.R. Reddy & L. Behera, 2002. Imaging of low-velocity Gondwana sediments in the Mahanadi delta of India using travel time inversion of first arrival seismic data, Jour. of App. Geophys., 49, 163-171.

92)    D. Sarkar, K. Chandrakala, P.P. Devi, A.R. Sridhar, K. Sain & P.R. Reddy, 2001. Crustal velocity structure of western Dharwar craton, south India, Jour. of Geodynamics, 31, 227-241.

93)    K. Sain, Nigel Bruguier, A.S.N. Murthy & P.R. Reddy, 2000. Shallow velocity structure along the Hirapur-Mandla profile in central India, using travel time inversion of wide-angle seismic data, and its tectonic implications, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 142, 505-515.

94)    K. Sain, T.A. Minshull, S.C. Singh, & R.W. Hobbs, 2000. Evidence for a thick free-gas layer beneath the bottom-simulating reflector in the Makran accretionary prism, Marine Geology, 164, 3-12.

95)    P. Kumar, H.C. Tewari & K. Sain, 1999. Velocity-depth relationship in selected parts of Indian crust, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 54, 129-136.

96)    C. Subrahmanium, S.I. Reddy, N.K. Thakur, T.G. Rao & K. Sain, 1998. Gas hydrates - a synoptic view, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 52, 497-512.

97)    K.L. Kaila & K. Sain, 1997. Variation of crustal velocity structure in India as determined from DSS studies and their implications on regional tectonics, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, 49, 395-407.

98)    P.R. Reddy, K. Sain & A.S.N Murthy, 1997. On the seismic vulnerability of Jabalpur region – evidence from deep seismic imaging, Current Science, 73, 796-800.

99)    K. Sain & P.R. Reddy, 1997. Use of post-critical reflections in solving the hidden layer problem in seismic refraction work, Geophysics, 62, 285-1291.

100)  K. Sain & K.L. Kaila, 1996. Interpretation of first arrival travel times in seismic refraction work, Pure & App. Geophys., 147, 181-194.

101)  K. Sain & K.L. Kaila, 1996. A direct method of calculating interval velocities and layer thicknesses from wide-angle seismic reflection times, Pure & App. Geophys., 146, 343-363.

102)  K. Sain & K.L. Kaila, 1996. Ambiguity in the solution to the velocity inversion problem and a solution by joint inversion of seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection times, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 124, 215-227.

103)  K. Sain & K.L. Kaila, 1996. Direct calculation of interval velocities and layer thicknesses from wide angle seismic reflection times, Geophys. Jour. Internat., 125, 30-38.

104)  K. Sain & P.R. Reddy, 1995. Direct calculation of thicknesses of high velocity and underlying low velocity layers using post-critical reflection times in seismic refraction experiments, Jour. of App. Geophys., 134, 125-136.

105)  K. Sain & K.L. Kaila, 1994. Inversion of wide-angle seismic reflection times with damped least squares, Geophysics, 59, 1735-1744.

106)  K.L. Kaila & K. Sain, 1994. Errors in rms velocity and zero offset two-way time as determined from wide-angle seismic reflection times using truncated series, Jour. of Seis. Expl., 3, 173-188.

 

(b) Non-SCI Articles

 

1)      A.S.N. Murty, ASSSRS Prasad & K. Sain, 2019. Delineation of the Trap and sub-trappean sediments in Kutch, Deccan Syneclise and Bengal basins – An analysis, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 23(1), in press.

2)      K. Sain, 2019. Controlled source seismology in India in the 21st century, Proc. of Indian National Science Academy, accepted.

3)      N. Satyavani, M. Ravikumar & K. Sain, 2018. Wavefield decomposition of multi-component OBS data to enhance the seismic signal, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 22(2), 138-142.

4)      K. Sain & ASSSRS Prasad, 2018. A report of the 54th Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union (IGU), Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 22(2), 247-249.

5)      U. Shankar, D. Bhowmick & K. Sain, 2016. Estimation of gas hydrate saturation using model based acoustic impedance inversion from Mahanadi offshore basin, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 20(3), 309-315.

6)      K. Sain & ASSSRS Prasad, 2016. A report of the 52nd Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union (IGU), Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 20(1), 136-141.

7)      K. Sain, M. Rafique, S. Singh & H. K. Gupta, 2015. A report of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop "Science & Technology of Gas Hydrates: When can they be produced efficiently and safely, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 19(3), 353-361.

8)      T.R.K. Chetty, K. Sain & ASSSRS Prasad, 2015. The 51st Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union: A Report, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 19(1), 110-115.

9)      N. Satyavani, K. Sain & V. Jyothi, 2014. Gas hydrates occurrences in the Andaman offshore, India - seismic inferences, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 18(4), 440-447.

10)    K. Sain, M. Rai & M.K. Sen, 2014. A review on shale gas prospect in Indian sedimentary basins, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 18(2), 183-194.

11)    K. Sain & H.K. Gupta, 2014. Gas-hydrates, a major energy resource of India for the next generation, Jour. of Indian Geophys. Union, 18(1), 11-17.

12)    ASSSRS Prasad, K. Sain & M.K. Sen, 2013. Imaging sub basalt Mesozoics along Jakhau-Mandvi and Mandvi-Mundra profiles in Kutch sedimentary basin from seismic and gravity modelling, Geohorizons, 18(2), 51-56.

13)    K. Sain, 2012. Exploration and assessment of gas-hydrates, Exploration and Production: Oil and Gas Review, v.10, issue 2, p.1-3.

14)    K. Sain, 2010. Book Review on ‘Fundamentals of Geophysics’, Episodes, 33, 69-70.

15)    K. Sain, 2011. Gas hydrates - major potential energy resource of India in the 21st century, Jour. of Geophysics, 31/32, 81-89.

16)    K. Sain, 2009. Gas hydrates – Future potential energy source: their detection and assessment using seismic methods, Indian Geological Congress’s Third Prof. P.B. Verma Memorial Lecture, KDMIPE, ONGC, Dehradun, November 14, pp.1-19.

17)    U. Shankar & K. Sain, 2009. Heat flow variation from bottom simulating reflector in the Kerala-Konkan basin of the western continental margin of India, Indian Jour. of Mar. Sci., 38, 110-115.

18)    K. Sain & M. Ojha, 2008. Estimation of gas hydrates and free-gas concentrations using modeling and crossplot of seismic amplitudes from the bottom simulating reflector, Advances in Geosciences, Ocean Science, 18, 181-196.

19)    M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2007. Seismic amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses from a bottom simulating reflector of various gas hydrates models, Geohorizons, 12, 2, 22-26.

20)    K. Sain, 2007. Gas hydrates: a potential source of energy, Gond. Geol. Magazine, Spl. vol. 9, 65-70.

21)    D. Sarkar, K. Sain, P.R. Reddy, R.D. Catchings & W.D. Mooney, 2006. Seismic reflection images of crust beneath 2001 M=7.7 Kutch (Bhuj) epicentral region, western India, EOS Trans, AGU, 87, 52, S53A 1312.

22)    K. Sain, 2006, Estimation of various physical parameters from BSR and quantification of gas hydrates – a case study, Geohorizons, 11, 2, 18-23.

23)    P.R. Reddy, L. Behera & K. Sain, 2005. Magmatic Underplating in the Mahanadi delta: Results from seismic and gravity studies, DCS Newsletter, Dept. of Sci. & Tech., 15, 21-24.

24)    K. Sain, 2004. Present status of worldwide R&D on the utilization of Gas hydrates for power production, International Union of Physics and Applied Physics (IUPAP) Working Group on Energy, ANNEX A – FOSSIL ENERGY, www.iupap.org/wg/energy/annex-1a.pdf, p. 27-31

25)    V.K. Rao & K. Sain, 2002. ‘Gas Hydrate: barffily aag ek akshun urja ka bhandar’, Vasundhara, 8, 7-14

26)    K. Sain, 2001. Gas-hydrate – a potential source of hydrocarbon energy, BOYSCAST News Letter (Dept. of Sci. & Tech., India), 2, 1-4.

27)    C.A. Zelt, K. Sain, J.V. Naumenko & D.S. Sawyer, 2000. Assessment of crustal velocity models using seismic refraction and reflection tomography, EOS, 81, F876, 2000

28)    K.L. Kaila & K. Sain, 1994. Errors in rms velocity by hyperbolic fitting of the wide-angle seismic reflection times and a method for their inversion to determine the interval velocity structure, ONGC Bull., 31, 33-49.

 

(c) Chapter in Books

 

1)      K. Sain, 2013. Gas hydrate: a viable future major energy resource of India, In Sinha, R. and Ravindra, R., (Ed.), Earth System Processes and Disaster Management, Society of Earth Scientists Series 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 205-211.

2)      S. Ramesh, D.V. Rao, B.R. Rao, K. Sain, O. Khlystov, M.A. Grachev & S. Kathiroli, 2013. Gas hydrate exploration and sampling in Kukuya canyon, north of Selenga delta, Lake Baikal, Russia, In R. Venkatachalapathy, (Ed.), Earth Resources and Environment, Research Publishing, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-08-6942-7, pp.132-140.

3)      K. Sain, H. Gupta, A. Mazumder, A.K. Bhaumik & P.K. Bhowmick, 2012. Geo-scientific investigations of gas hydrates in India, In Singhvi, A.K. and Banerjee, D.M., (Eds.), Proc. Indian National Science Academy, 78, pp. 503-511.

4)      K. Sain, 2011(a). Velocity-density relationship, In Gupta H.K., (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Springer, The Netherlands, p.1198-1199.

5)      K. Sain, 2011(b). Velocity-temperature relationship, In Gupta H.K., (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Springer, The Netherlands, p.1199-1200.

6)      K. Sain, 2011(c). Energy partitioning of seismic waves, In Gupta H.K., (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Springer, The Netherlands, p.291-294.

7)      A. Manglik, S.K. Verma, K. Sain, T. Harinarayana, & V.V. Rao, 2011. Joint inversion of seismic and MT Data – an example from southern granulite terrain, India, In Petrovský, E., et al. (Eds.), Earth’s Magnetic Interior, IAGA Special Sopron Book Series 1, Springer Science, p.83-90.

8)      K. Sain, 2008. An overview of the crustal structures in India from deep seismic sounding studies and their geotectonic implications, In Singh, B. and Dimri, V.P., (Eds.), Memoir, Geol. Soc. of India, 68, 123-150.

9)      K. Sain & M. Ojha, 2008. Identification and quantification of gas hydrates: a viable source of energy in the 21st century, In Singh, B. and Dimri, V.P., (Eds.), Memoir, Geol. Soc. of India, 68, 273-288.

10)    K. Sain & H. Gupta, 2008. Gas hydrates – future potential source of energy in India, In Singhvi, A.K., Bhattacharya, A. and Guha, S., (Eds.), Glimpses of Geoscience Research in India, Indian Report to IUGS 2004-2008, Indian National Science Academy, pp. 244-250.

11)    D. Sarkar, K. Sain, P.R. Reddy, R.D. Catchings, and W.D. Mooney, 2007. Seismic-reflection images of the crust beneath the 2001 M = 7.7 Kutch (Bhuj) epicentral region, western India, In Stein, S., and Mazzotti, S., (Ed.), Continental Intraplate Earthquakes: Science, Hazard, and Policy Issues, Geological Society of America, Sp. Paper 425, p. 319–327.

12)    H.K. Gupta & K. Sain, 2005. Detection and quantitative assessment of gas hydrates - an initiative along the continental margins of India, In Gupta, H.K., (Ed.), Oceanology, Universities Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad, pp. 118-137.

13)    H.K. Gupta & K. Sain, 2002. Need for gas hydrates investigation along the continental margins of India, In Malik, S.K. and Varadarajan, S., (Eds.), Energy and Food Security: Advances in science for sustainable environment and development in India during the next decade, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, pp. 41-48

14)    P.R. Reddy, P.K. Rao & K. Sain, 1999. Crustal configuration along the Narmada-Son lineament in central India from deep seismic sounding studies, In Subbarao, K.V., (Ed.), Memoir, Geol. Soc. of India, 43, 353-365.

 

(d) Books, Edited Abstract volumes & Unpublished Reports

 

1)      K. Sain & ASSSRS Prasad, 2018. 'Changing Water Cycle and Water Resources', Edited Abstract Volume of the 55th Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union held at Rabindranath Tagore University, Bhopal during December 5-7, 2018, Eds., www.igu.in, p.94.

2)      Sain, K., Nara Damodara, Pandey Vivekanand, Singh Satendra, Sreenivas, B., Patil, D.J., Chandrasekhar, N., Pandurangi, L.S., Mane, P.H. & Katiyar, G.C., 2018. Full waveform tomography of wide-angle SBN and modelling of gravity/magnetic data in the Kerala-Konkan offshore for delineation of basalt and sub-basalt formations (Unpublished Report), Submitted to ONGC, Mumbai.

3)      M. Pratap, S.K. Singh, K.K. Chpra, P. Kumar, Y. Yamada, N. Tenma, K. Sain, U.S. Sahay, R. Boswell, W. Waite & T.S. Collett, 2018. Marine gas hydrate reservoir systems along the eastern continental margin of India: Results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02, Eds., Marine and Petroleum Geology, Elsevier.

4)      A.K. Singh & K. Sain, 2017. Seismic attenuation for the investigation of gas-hydrates, Lambert Academic Publishing, p.128.

5)      K. Sain & ASSSRS Prasad, 2017. 'Recent advances in Geophysics with special reference to Earthquake Seismology', Edited Abstract Volume of the 54th Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union held at CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad during December 3-7, 2017, Eds., www.igu.in, vol.1, p.132.

6)      K. Sain, ASSSRS Prasad, & P. R. Prasad, 2016. 'Geosciences for Sustainability', Edited Abstract Volume of the Federation of Indian Geosciences Association held at IIT (ISM), Dhanbad during November 8-10, 2016, Eds., www.igu.in, vol.1, p.206.

7)      K. Sain, ASSSRS Prasad, & P. R. Prasad, 2016. 'Geosciences for Sustainability', Edited Abstract Volume of the Federation of Indian Geosciences Association held at IIT (ISM), Dhanbad during November 8-10, 2016, Eds., www.igu.in, vol.2, p.138.

8)      P.R. Reddy & K. Sain, 2015. 'Near Surface Earth System Sciences', Edited Abstract Volume of the 52nd Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union held at NCAOR, Goa during November 3-5, 2015, Eds., www.igu.in, p.195.

9)      M.V. Ramana, T. Ramprasad, T.S. Collett, P. Kumar, R.M. Boswell, M. Riedel, A.V. Sathe, M. Lall, K. Vishwanath, A. Mazumdar, K. Sain & J. Cochran, J., 2014. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01, Eds., Marine and Petroleum Geology, Elsevier.

10)    K. Sain, ASSSRS Prasad, 2014. 'Earth Sciences and Society', Edited Abstract Volume of the 51st Annual Convention of Indian Geophysical Union held at Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra November 19-21, 2014, Eds., www.igu.in, p.200.

11)    K. Sain, 2014. 'Science & Technology of gas hydrates: When can they be produced efficiently and safely', Edited Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad (India) during November 9-12, 2014, Ed., www.fieryice2014.org.

12)    K. Sain, U. Shankar, N. Satyavani, M. Ojha, M. Rafique & S. Singh, 2013. Identification, delineation and quantitative assessment of gas-hydrates in Krishna-Godavari offshore from high resolution MCS data, NGRI Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-2013-EXP-412 (Unpublished) submitted to DGH, NOIDA.

13)    R. Ghosh, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2012. Evaluating resource potential of gas-hydrates using EMT, Lambert Academic Publishing, p.164.

14)    K. Sain, M. Ojha, N. Satyavani, M. Rafique & S. Singh, 2011. Multi-channel and Ocean bottom seismic data for gas-hydrate investigation in KG and Mahanadi basins, NGRI Prelim. Rep. No. NGRI-2011-EXP-392 (Unpublished) submitted to MoES, Delhi.

15)    S. Lin, R. Matsumoto, M. Riedel, BJ Ryu and K. Sain, 2011. Occurrence and exploration of gas hydrate in the marginal sea and continental margin of the Asia and Oceania region, Eds., Marine and Petroleum Geology, Elsevier.

16)    K. Arora, A. Cazenave, ER Engdahl, R. Kind, A. Manglik, S. Roy, K. Sain & S. Uyeda, 2011 (Editorial Board). 2nd Edition, Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Springer, Ed. H.K. Gupta,

17)    D. Venkata Rao, S. Ramesh, K. Sain, B. R. Rao, M.A. Grachev, I.Z. Tamara, N.G. Granin, C.  Alexendr, O.M. Khlystov, A.P. Fedetov, G. Alexie, V. Stoyanov & V.V. Shapovalenko, 2007, Joint Research in Lake Baikal for Gas Hydrate Studies, Tech. Rep. (Unpublished) submitted DST, Delhi.

18)    K. Sain, 2006. Development of method for quantification of gas-hydrates from MCS data and its application to Indian offshore, NGRI Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-2013-EXP-378 (Unpublished) submitted to DST, Delhi.

19)    N.K. Thakur, K. Sain, S.I. Reddi B. Ashalatha, P.P. Rao, U. Shanker & N. Satyavani, 2003. Reprocessing and waveform inversion of multi-channel seismic data of OIL for gas-hydrate investigation in offshore Saurashtra, NGRI Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-2003-EXP-328 (Unpublished).

20)    S.I. Reddy, N.K. Thakur, B. Ashalatha, K. Sain, Y. Hanumantha Rao & S. Chand, 2001. Reprocessing of multichannel seismic data of ONGC Limited for gas-hydrate exploration in offshore Goa, (Part-I: Basic Processing) NGRI Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-2001-EXP-307 (Unpublished).

21)    S.I. Reddy, N.K. Thakur, B. Ashalatha & K. Sain, 2001. Reprocessing of multichannel seismic data of ONGC Limited for gas-hydrate investigation in offshore Goa, (Part-II: Special Processing) NGRI Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-2001-EXP-307 (Unpublished).

22)    P.R. Reddy & 49 others of CSS, MT, DRS, Gravity, Geology and Geochronology groups, 2001. Modeling the tectonic evolution of southern granulite belt of the Indian shield using coincident seismic reflection/refraction, geological/geochemical, geochronological, gravity / magnetic, magnetotelluric and deep resistivity studies along the southern geotransect. NGRI Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-2001-EXP-317 (a member of CSS group) (Unpublished).

23)    P.R. Reddy, D. Sarkar, & K. Sain, 2001. A report of a collaborative scientific study at USGS, Menlo Park, USA (Unpublished).

24)    N. Nagarajan, K. Sain (Convener), V.M. Tiwari, L. Behera, B.P.K. Patro & P. Kumar, 2000. Hydrocarbon Exploration - Benchmark document for this decade, NGRI(CSIR) (Unpublished).

25)    H.K. Gupta & 60 others of CSS, MT, Gravity and DRS Groups, 1998. Integrated geophysical studies for hydrocarbon exploration in Saurashtra. Tech. Rep. No. NGRI-98-EXP-237 (Unpublished).

26)    S.C. Singh, P. Henry, Y. Ji & K. Sain, 1998, Confidential Report on Effective medium theory, waveform inversion of VSP and OBH data, Bullard Laboratories, Cambridge University (Unpublished Report).

27)    S.C. Singh, K. Sain & Valerie Rousseau, 1997, Confidential Report on Waveform inversion of MCS data, Bullard Laboratories, Cambridge University, (Unpublished Report).

28)    K. Sain, 1995, Inversion of seismic wide-angle reflection traveltime data with applications, Ph. D. Thesis, Osmania University (Unpublished).

29)    K. Sain, 1987, Variation of seismic velocities with depth for marine sediments, M.Sc. (Tech) dissertation at ISM, Dhanbad under the supervision of Prof. R.K.S. Chouhan, p. 125 (Unpublished).

 

(e) Articles in Proceeding volumes

 

1)      N. Damodara, & K. Sain, 2018. Workflow for an initial model of seismic tomography. Expanded abstract, In: 8th International Conference & Exhibition of EAGE, Saint Petersburg, Russia, Doi: 10.3997/2214-4609.201800304.

2)      Arun, K.P., Aayush Agarwal & K. Sain, 2017. Constrained AVO inversion using genetic algorithm and FDR-PSO method and the estimation of gas-hydrate and free-gas in Mahanadi offshore basin, India, SEG International Exposition and 87th Annual Meeting during September 26-28, 2017, p.637-642.

3)      Jitender Kumar & K. Sain, 2017. Application of spectral decomposition for gas hydrate exploration: a study from Mahanadi offshore, India, SEG International Exposition and 87th Annual Meeting during September 26-28, 2017, p.2195-2199.

4)      Anju, K. Joshi, Laxmi Pandey & K. Sain, 2017. Identification of BSR and estimation of gas-hydrates from well log data at NGHP-021-04A and 11A in the Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, SEG International Exposition and 87th Annual Meeting during September 26-28, 2017, p.3483-3487.

5)      Rowtu Ramu & K. Sain, 2017. Identification of Gas Chimney in the Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, SPG-Jaipur during November 17-19, 2017, P-054, p.1-4

6)      N. Damodara & K. Sain, 2017. Visco-acoustic Full Waveform Tomography of Synthetic Ocean Bottom Seismic Data, SPG-Jaipur during November 17-19, 2017, P-062, p.1-4

7)      Laxmi Pandey, Anju K. Joshi & K. Sain, 2017. Estimation of porosity using post-stack seismic and well log data at site NGHP-01-9A in Mahanadi offshore basin-a case study, SPG-Jaipur during November 17-19, 2017, P-127, p.1-5

8)      K. Sain, N. Damodara, N. Chandrasekhar, Lata S. Pandurangi & G.C. Katiyar, 2017. Imaging finer details of subsurface by full waveform tomography, Kerala-Konkan offshore, SPG-Jaipur during November 17-19, 2017, P-132, p.1-4

9)      Anju K. Joshi, Laxmi Pandey, Arun K.P., & K. Sain, 2017. Gas Hydrate Characterization from seismic and well log data: Krishna-Godavari basin, SPG-Jaipur during November 17-19, 2017, P-135, p.1-5

10)    Abhishek Dubey, Arka Das & K. Sain, 2017. Stochastic inversion of Post-stack seismic data using fractal-based initial model, SPG-Jaipur during November 17-19, 2017, P-139, p.1-4

11)    K. Sain & N. Damodara, 2015. Seismic tomography of wide-angle seismic data: selected examples from Indian onshore and offshore, SPG-Jaipur during December 3-5, 2015, P-69, p.1-4.

12)    Kamal Kumar Munda, K.P. Arun, Sandhya Krishnan, Jitender Kumar & K. Sain, 2015. Application of seismic attributes in enhancing thin beds: an example from North Sea, SPG-Jaipur during December 3-5, 2015, P-199, p.1-5.

13)    K. Sain, 2014. Geophysical investigation of gas hydrates at NGRI, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 57, p106.

14)    N. Satyavani, M.K. Sen & K. Sain, 2014. OBS studies in the Indian offshore for gas hydrate investigation, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 17, p45-48.

15)    V. Jyothi & K. Sain, 2014. Seismic attenuation for the delineation of gas hydrates: application to seismic data in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 28, p68-70.

16)    S. Jana, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2014. Estimation of gas hydrates for heterogeneous model constructed from well log in Krishna-Godavari basin, Eastern Indian offshore, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 31, p75-76.

17)    V. Pandey, K. Sain & M. K. Sen 2014. Quantification of gas hydrates in fracture media: a new approach, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 33, p79-82.

18)    G. Alekhya, N. Satyavani & K. Sain, 2014. Inferring free gas occurrence in Krishna-Godavari basin using log and seismic data, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 38, p90-92.

19)    R. Chatterjee, D. Kumar & K. Sain, 2014. Pore pressure and porosity mapping in gas hydrate bearing sediments in Krishna-Godavari basin, India, In Abstract Volume of the 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop (Fiery Ice 2014) held at Hyderabad, India, November 9-12, 2014, Paper ID 39, p93-95.

20)    K. Sain, 2014. Gas-hydrates in India, a major energy resource for the next generation, Proc. of the 8th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2014) held at Beijing, China, July 28 - August 1, 2014, T3-69, p1-5.

21)    N. Satyavani, K. Sain & H.K. Gupta, 2014. P- and S-wave velocity structure in a gas hydrate reservoir in the Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Proc. of the 8th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2014) held at Beijing, China, July 28 - August 1, 2014, T2-58, p1-2.

22)    K. Sain & A.K. Singh, 2012. Seismic attenuation across a BSR in the Makran offshore, Proc. of the 7th International Conference & Exhibition on Petroleum Geophysics held at Hyderabad, India, February 16-18, 2012, PID 084, p1-4.

23)    M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2012. Empirical trends of velocity-porosity and velocity-density in shallow sediments in Kerala-Konkan basin on the west coast of India, Proc. of the 7th International Conference & Exhibition on Petroleum Geophysics held at Hyderabad, India, February 16-18, 2012, PID 444, p1-5.

24)    U. Shankar & K. Sain 2012. Gas hydrate stability zone modeling in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern margin of India, Proc. of the 7th International Conference & Exhibition on Petroleum Geophysics held at Hyderabad, India, February 16-18, 2012, PID 223, p1-6.

25)    N. Satyavani, X. Wang, K. Sain & BJP Kumar, 2012. Estimation of gas hydrate along a seismic line in the Andaman offshore using acoustic impedance and resistivity log, Proc. of the 7th International Conference & Exhibition on Petroleum Geophysics held at Hyderabad, India, February 16-18, 2012, PID 413, p1-4.

26)    D. Bhowmick, D.K. Gupta, U. Shankar & K. Sain 2012. A transformation from acoustic and density properties to reservoir properties applied to KG basin, Proc. of the 7th International Conference & Exhibition on Petroleum Geophysics held at Hyderabad, India, February 16-18, 2012, PID 439, p1-6.

27)    K. Sain, 2011. Seismic detection and quantification of gas-hydrates - application to Indian continental margin, Proc. of the 7th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011) held at Edinburgh, UK, July 17-21, 2011, PID 646, p1-5.

28)    U. Shankar, K. Sain & M. Riedel, 2011. Assessment of heat flow and gas-hydrates in Krishna-Godavari basin, constrained from 2D/3D seismic and well log data, Proc. of the 7th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011) held at Edinburgh, UK, July 17-21, 2011, PID 451, p1-5.

29)    K. Sain, R. Ghosh & M. Ojha, 2010. Effective medium modeling of gas hydrate-filled fractures using sonic velocity in the Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian offshore, Proc. of the 9th International Oil & Gas Conference & Exhibition of Petrotech-2010, PID-20100389, p1-6.

30)    S. Kumar, N. Satyavani & K. Sain, 2010. Prestack time migration and its effect on the identification of BSR in western coast of India, 8th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2010, SPG, p-155, 1-4.

31)    K. Sain, M. Ojha & T.A. Minshull, 2009. Assessing gas hydrates along a seismic line in the Makran accretionary prism using AVO crossplot, Proc. of the 8th International Oil & Gas Conference & Exhibition of Petrotech-2009, P-865, p1-6.

32)    K. Sain, 2008. Seismic Methods for Recognition and Evaluation of Gas hydrates, Proc. of the 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG) held at Goa during October 1-6, 2008, http://www.gndec.ac.in/ ~hsrai/civil/resources/conf/GOA/IACMAG08/pdfs/H22.pdf.

33)    U. Shankar, M. Ojha, K. Sain, R.K. Khanna, M. Sudhakar & A. Tyagi, 2008. Utility of seafloor geophysical study in search of gas hydrates / gas related evidences in the deep waters of western Indian margin, 7th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2008, SPG, p-2227, 1-5.

34)    S.S. Singh, U. Shankar & K. Sain, 2008. Multiple suppression and data quality enhancement using radon transform: a case study, 7th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2008, SPG, p-268, 1-6.

35)    K. Sain, & M. Ojha, 2008. Methods for identifying and quantifying gas hydrates - an alternate source of energy, 7th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2008, SPG, p-94, 1-4.

36)    S. Ram, U. Shankar, K. Sain, & N.K. Thakur, 2008. Saturation estimation of gas hydrates with relevant velocity models, 7th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2008, SPG, p-125, 1-7.

37)    A.R. Sridhar, ASSSRS Prasad, N. Satyavani & K. Sain, 2008. Sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments in the Narmada basin based on amplitude studies – a revisit to the old DSS data, 7th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2008, SPG, p-603, 1-5.

38)    K. Sain, & C.A. Zelt, 2008. Velocity structure of sub-basalt Mesozoics around the Lodhika well in the Saurashtra peninsula from inversion of wide-angle seismic data, 7th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2008, SPG, p-602, 1-3.

39)    K. Sain & H.K. Gupta, 2007. Seismic methods for identifying and quantifying gas hydrates – viable source of energy in India, Proceedings of International Conference on Gas Hydrates – Energy, Climate and Environment, held at Taipei, Taiwan during October 4-5, 2007, http://140.112.68.2/ghc/2007 Gas Hydrate Conference. Files/ab07.pdf, p.39-42.

40)    K. Sain, N.K. Thakur & R.K. Khanna, 2007. Seismic quality factor observation in gas-hydrated sediments on the western Indian margin, Proceedings in 7th International Oil & Gas Conference & Exhibition of Petrotech-2007, P-541, p1-6.

41)    K. Sain & N.K. Thakur, 2006, Geothermal gradient and heat flow from a bottom simulating reflector in the Makran offshore, Proceedings of ASC held in Armenia, p.1-6.

42)    K. Sain, M. Ojha & N.K. Thakur, 2006. Quantitative assessment of gas hydrates from AVO crossplot, 6th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Kolkata-2006, SPG, pp. 208-211.

43)    ASSSRS Prasad, K. Sain & B.R. Prasad, 2006. High-velocity gradients in West Bengal sedimentary basin, India from traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data and multiples of first arrivals, 6th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Kolkata-2006, SPG, pp. 863-865.

44)    P.K. Rao, M.M. Dixit, P. Khare, G.K. Rao, S. Raju, K. Sain, A.S.N. Murthy, V.Y.N. Sarma, ASSSRS Prasad, V. Sridher, M.S. Reddy, P.R. Reddy & D. Sarkar, 2004. Hidden Mesozoic sediments – searching with seismic refraction tool, 5th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2004, SPG, pp. 81-84.

45)    P.K. Bera, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2004. Ambiguities in seismic wave velocity analysis and its AVO response in Gas Hydrate bearing sediments, 5th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2004, SPG, pp. 512-517.

46)    K. Sain, F. Gao, G.R. Pratt & C.A. Zelt, 2004. Stratigraphy of sub-volcanic sediments using 2-D waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data, 5th International Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Hyderabad-2004, SPG, pp. 503-507.

47)    K. Sain, S.I. Reddy, N.K. Thakur & C. Subrahmanium, 2002. Gas-hydrate investigations of NGRI – relevance for gas-hydrate quantification, Proceedings of Indo-Russian Joint Workshop on Gas hydrates under ILTP’ held in New Delhi, 2001, DOD, Govt. of India, pp. 166-175. http://dod.nic.in/pro/gasright.htm

 

(f) Papers Submitted/Under Revision/Preparation in SCI Journals

 

1)      A. K. Bhaumik, Shiv Kumar, T. Behra, K. Sain, A. K. Gupta & P. Kumar, 2018. Palaeochannel - a potential gas hydrate accumulation site: Foraminiferal, Geochemical and Geophysical evidences from Hole 10D, Krishna-Godavari Basin, Bay of Bengal, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., submitted after revision.

2)      Soumya Jana, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2018. Direct estimation of porosity and hydrate saturation using VFSA from marine seismic reflection data in KG basin, India, Geophys. Jour. Internat., submitted after revision.

3)      P. C. Kumar & K. Sain, 2018. A meta-attribute fault cube augmenting structural interpretation: example from Taranaki basin off New Zealand, Jour. of Geophys. Res., under revision.

4)      Damodara Nara & K. Sain, 2018. Combined traveltime and acoustic full waveform tomography of realistic 2D synthetic seismic data, Jour. of Pure & App. Geophys., under revision.

5)      V. Pandey, K. Sain & M.K. Sen, 2018, Estimation of gas-hydrates from seismic velocity-resistivity transformed data in the Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of App. Geophys., submitted.

6)      D.K. Singha, P.K. Shukla, R. Chatterjee K. Sain, 2018, Gas hydrate related pore pressure and vertical stress from multi-channel 2D seismic data in deep offshore of Mahanadi basin, India, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, submitted.

7)      Rowtu Ramu & K. Sain, 2018. Multi-attribute and artificial neural network analysis of seismic inferred chimney-like features in marine sediments: A study from KG Basin, India, Current Science, submitted.

8)      Bappa Mukherjee & K. Sain, 2018. Identification of formation interfaces using combined wavelet and Fourier transform of borehole data: A case study from Krishna-Godavari basin (NGHP-02 Expedition), Petroleum Geosciences (EAGE), submitted.

9)      V. Pandey & K. Sain, 2018. Assessment of gas-hydrates from AVO analysis of seismic data in fractured shale in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian margin, Jour. of Earth System Sciences, submitted.

10)    Bappa Mukherjee & K. Sain, 2018. Bed boundary identification from borehole data using Walsh transform technique: A case study from NGHP Expedition-02 in Krishna-Godavari basin, India, Jour. of Earth System Science., submitted.

11)    Bappa Mukherjee & K. Sain, 2018. Lithology prediction using artificial intelligence: A case study from Krishna-Godavari basin (NGHP-02 Expedition), Petroleum Geosciences (Springer), submitted.

12)    Bappa Mukherjee, P.N. Singha Roy & K. Sain, 2018. Delineation of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon zones using fractal analysis of well log data: A case study from Bhogpara oil field, NE India, Mathematical Geosciences, submitted.

13)    Amrita Singjh, M. Ojha & K. Sain, 2018. Predicting lithology using neural network from downhole data of a gas hydrate reservoir in Krishna-Godavari basin, eastern Indian offshore, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol. Geol., submitted.

1)      A.S.N. Murty, ASSSRS Prasad & K. Sain, 2018. Delineation of Trap and subtrappean sediments in Kutch, Deccan syneclise and Bengal basins - An analysis, Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India, about to submit.

2)      K. Sain, Y. Subbarao & N. Satyavani, 2018. Physical parameters derived from a BSR in the Andaman offshore, Jour. Geol. Soc. of India, about to submit.

3)      K. Sain, F. Gao, G.R. Pratt & C.A. Zelt, 2018. Stratigraphy of sub-volcanic sediments using 2-D waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data, Geophys. Jour. Internat., about to submit.

4)      K. Sain, & A.K. Singh, 2018. Seismic image enhancement using Inverse-Q filtering and its application to gas-hydrate-bearing sediments in the Krishna Godavari basin, eastern Indian offshore, Jour. of Mar. & Petrol Geol., about to submit.

 

Awards/Fellowships/Honours:


a. Awards/Medals:


(i) Prof. Jagdeo Singh Memorial Best Paper Award (2018) by the Jour. of GSI;

(ii) Distinguished Alumnus Award (2017) by IIT(ISM);

(iii) Decennial Award (2016) by IGU;

(iv) Anni Talwani Memorial Prize (2014) by IGU;

(v) Best Paper Award (2012) published in Gondwana Research (IF=8.74);

(vi) AP Scientist Award (2011);

(vii) NN Chatterjee Award (2010) by Geol. Soc. of India;

(viii) Prem Bahadur Memorial Lecture (2009) of IGC;

(ix) Best Poster Award (2007) by Petrotech Int. Conf. on Oil & Gas;

(x) National Mineral Award (2005) by the Ministry of Mines, GoI;

(xi) Best Paper Medal (2002) by APAS;

(xii) Swarnajayanti Project Award (2001) by DST;

(xiii) Young Scientist Award (1998) by CSIR;

(xiv) Krishnan Medal (1996) by IGU.


b. Fellowships:


(i) Founding Fellow of Telangana State Acad. of Sci. (2016);

(ii) National Academy of Sciences, India (2011);

(iii) Andhra Pradesh Acad. Sci. (2010);

(iv) Geol. Soc. India (2008);

(v) Indian Geophys. Union (2002);

(vi) Raman Fellowship (2003) by CSIR;

(vii) BOYSCAST Fellowship (1999) by DST.


c. Recognition/Honors:

(i) Elected as Alternate Delegate of Asia Pacific Region to American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) House of Delegates (2015-2017);

(ii) Treasurer of Federation of Indian Geosciences Association (2015 onward);

(iii) Honorary Secretary of Indian Geophysical Union (2014 onward);

(iv) Vice President for Soc. of Petroleum Geophysicists (SPG), Hyderabad Chapter (2011-2014);

(v) Thesis Supervisor at Univ. of Hyderabad (2011 onward), Andhra University (2011 onward) and Osmania University (2007 onward);

(vi) Chief Scientist for three cruises (2007, 2010 & 2017);

(vii) Bureau Member of International Lithosphere Program under IUGG (2007-2015);

(viii) Among 50 Emerging Stars (2003) by ‘The Week’ Magazine;

(ix) 1st Place in ‘Science Writing in Hindi’ (2002) by CSIR;

(x) National Scholarship by the Ministry of Education & Social Welfare, GoI.


 

d. International/National Seminars/Workshop:

 

(i) Organized 54th Indian Geophys. Union (IGU) jointly with CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad during December 3-7, 2017;

(ii) Organized 53rd IGU jointly with IIT (ISM), Dhanbad during November 8-10, 2016;

(iii) Organized 52nd IGU Jointly with National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research at Goa during November 3-5, 2015;

(iv) Organized 51st IGU jointly with Kurukshetra University at Kurukshetra during November 19-21, 2014;

(v) Convened & Organized 9th International Methane Hydrates R&D Workshop in Hyderabad during November 9-12, 2014;

(vi) Co-Convened International Workshop on Exploration & Exploitation of Shale Gas in Hyderabad during December 19-20, 2012;

(vii) Organized a National Seminar on Gas Hydrates at NIOT, Chennai during February 4-5, 2007;

(viii) Organized/convened 14 sessions in International/national Seminars/Conferences;

(ix) Chaired 33 sessions;

(x) Delivered 34 invited talks;

(xi) Attended 68 conferences; and

(xii) Taught a Course on 'Seismic Tomography' at International Conference & Exposition of SPG-India, 2015;

(xiii) Taught a Course on 'Seismic Modeling' at International Conference & Exposition of SPG-India, 2017.

(xiv) Delivered Prof. J. Singh Memorial Lecture at IIT(ISM), Dhanbad on 8th Feb., 2019.  



Dr. Kalachand Sain

Director

91-135-2525101 (O)
 

dir.off(AT)wihg.res.in

 

 Specialization:

Inversion, Modelling, Processing and Interpretation of Geophysical Data 

Educational Qualifications

B.Sc.(Hons.)

1984, (Phys, Chem, Maths), Burdwan University, Burdwan 

 M.Sc.(Tech.)

1988, (Applied  Geophysics), Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad

Ph.D.

1995, (Controlled Source Seismology), Osmania University, Hyderabad
Post-doctoral  1997, (Marine Seismics), Cambridge University, UK
Post-doctoral  1999, (Traveltime Tomography), Rice University, USA
Post-doctoral  2003, (Waveform Tomography), Rice University, USA
Qualified GATE (1989) and CSIR/UGC Joint JRF (1989) Examination
Academic/Research Experience/Employment:

Field Officer, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (1988 - 1989)

CSIR JRF and SRF, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (1989 - 1994).

Scientist-B, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (1994-1998).

Scientist-C, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (1998-2002).

Scientist-EI, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (2002-2006).

Principal Scientist-EII, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (2006-2010).

Senior Principal Scientist (F), CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (2010-2015).

Chief Scientist (G), CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad (2015- Jan 2019).

Director, Wadia Insitute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun (Jan 2019 - continue).
  Research Interests

 Exploration of marine gas hydrates

 Imaging sub-volcanic sediments (onshore & offshore)

Evolution of sedimentary basins

Tectonic implications of Indian provinces

Inversion, modeling, advanced processing & interpretation of seismic data
 
   Major Contributions

Established state-of-the-art Gas Hydrate Research Center at CSIR-NGRI with world-class facilities for traveltime tomography, amplitude vs. offset modelling, full-waveform tomography, impedance inversion, pre-stack depth migration, attenuation & other attribute studies, rock physics modeling, artificial neural networks and interpretation of seismic data

Led scientific cruises in 2007, 2010 and 2017 by designing specific experiments for the heat flow experiments off Goa and Cochin, investigation for marine gas-hydrates in Krishna-Godavari (KG) and Mahanadi basins, and imaging plate geometries in the Andaman subduction zone.

Delineated gas-hydrates (future major unconventional energy resources) in KG, Mahanadi and Andaman basins from where samples of gas-hydrates were later recovered by drilling and coring for validation.

Prepared gas-hydrates stability thickness map, and characterized gas-hydrates reservoirs through computation of seismic attributes (reflection strength, instantaneous frequencies, attenuation etc.); and evaluated the resource potential of gas-hydrates within Indian exclusive economic zone.

Delineated fine-scale velocity structure by sophisticated full-waveform inversion of MCS data in KG basin and Makran accretionary prism, which show features like faults in understanding gas-hydrates system.

Proposed a new approach by combining several attributes into a meta-attribute based on artificial neural network for advanced interpretation and enhanced imaging of subsurface features such as the gas-chimneys, faults, mass transport deposits, sills/dykes, channel-levee systems, volcanic intrusion etc. from 3D seismic data off New Zealand

Volcanic rocks make routine geophysical methods incapable of probing underlying Mesozoic sediments (that contain more than 50% of global oil), which have been imaged onland in Kutch, Saurashtra, Deccan Syneclise & central India by wide-angle seismic experiments. The results match with available lithologs.

Developed state-of-the-art full waveform tomography and successfully applied to ONGC's wide-angle ocean bottom seismic data, for the first time, to delineate fine-scale 2D velocity structure of Mesozoic sediments below the volcanic rocks in Kerala-Konkan offshore.

Delineated deep features in various geological provinces (Southern Granulite Terrain, Dharwar Craton, Eastern Ghats-Cuddapah basin, Narmada-Son Lineament, Kutch Peninsula, Marwar Basin, Bengal Sedimentary Basin, Mahanadi Delta, NW Himalaya), and shed light for tectonic implications; and understanding processes for Bhuj (2001) and Jabalpur (1997) earthquakes.
 

 

 
   
 
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