Sediments from in the Himalaya are the archives for reconstructing the tectonic and sedimentary history of basins. The Himalayan sedimentary sequences are punctuated with physical and biological breaks that are controlled by extraterrestrial (cosmic), tectonic and global climatic variations.
The global events of Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian) and Permian glaciations (Lower Gondwana) are well known from the entire Lesser Himalaya. Cenozoic sediments preserved in the foreland (Subathu-Siwalik and Ganga) and forearc (Kargil) setting in Himalaya and Sub-Himalaya are an important repository to conduct studies related to long-term climatic variations, hinterland-sink relationship. Oligo-Miocene Kargil molasse is a suitable package for understanding equation between tectonics and climate change as it has proved potential for fauna and flora and exhibits cyclic sedimentation. Sandstone petrography, carbon and oxygen isotope study, systematic paleontology, clay mineralogy, etc. are the ways to gain insight in the tectonics and climate interaction in trans-Himalayan region in the time scale of 107 yrs. Late Paleocene-Eocene Subathu successions, by virtue of their synchronicity of India-Asia collision, are the ideal candidate to understand the physico-chemical environment prevailed during the early phases of Himalayan evolution. Siwalik sediments are one of best-studied foreland deposits, however, the interfluve sequences in Siwalik stratigraphy has the potential to understand the paleo-incised valleys and their relationship with hinterland tectonics and climate. Further, sediment source mixing characterization in these deposits using mineral magnetic and geochemical proxies will provide new record to constrain activation and reactivation of major thrusts and faults in Himalaya in different time scales of 107-103 yrs. Studies from lacustrine deposits, tufa, cave speleothems from NE and NW Himalaya have potential for the decadal scale climatic changes and its variation from east to west through time. High resolution records ranging upto 1000 yrs are important to understand the interaction of human civilization and climate changes and can be used to predict climate changes in near future.